Commit a9f7df56 authored by Achilleas Pipinellis's avatar Achilleas Pipinellis

Merge branch 'yaml-ci-cleanup' into 'master'

Clean up ci yaml doc

* Fix headings so that they are picked up by doc.gitlab.com
* Stick to 80 characters
* Clean up some examples

See merge request !2052
parents 76642d7a fc9fbdce
# Configuration of your builds with .gitlab-ci.yml
From version 7.12, GitLab CI uses a [YAML](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YAML) file (**.gitlab-ci.yml**) for the project configuration.
It is placed in the root of your repository and contains definitions of how your project should be built.
The YAML file defines a set of jobs with constraints stating when they should be run.
The jobs are defined as top-level elements with a name and always have to contain the `script` clause:
From version 7.12, GitLab CI uses a [YAML](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YAML)
file (`.gitlab-ci.yml`) for the project configuration. It is placed in the root
of your repository and contains definitions of how your project should be built.
The YAML file defines a set of jobs with constraints stating when they should
be run. The jobs are defined as top-level elements with a name and always have
to contain the `script` clause:
```yaml
job1:
......@@ -13,15 +16,21 @@ job2:
script: "execute-script-for-job2"
```
The above example is the simplest possible CI configuration with two separate jobs,
where each of the jobs executes a different command.
Of course a command can execute code directly (`./configure;make;make install`) or run a script (`test.sh`) in the repository.
The above example is the simplest possible CI configuration with two separate
jobs, where each of the jobs executes a different command.
Of course a command can execute code directly (`./configure;make;make install`)
or run a script (`test.sh`) in the repository.
Jobs are used to create builds, which are then picked up by [runners](../runners/README.md) and executed within the environment of the runner.
What is important, is that each job is run independently from each other.
Jobs are used to create builds, which are then picked up by
[runners](../runners/README.md) and executed within the environment of the
runner. What is important, is that each job is run independently from each
other.
## .gitlab-ci.yml
The YAML syntax allows for using more complex job specifications than in the above example:
The YAML syntax allows for using more complex job specifications than in the
above example:
```yaml
image: ruby:2.1
......@@ -46,26 +55,31 @@ job1:
- docker
```
There are a few `keywords` that can't be used as job names:
There are a few reserved `keywords` that **cannot** be used as job names:
| keyword | required | description |
| Keyword | Required | Description |
|---------------|----------|-------------|
| image | optional | Use docker image, covered in [Use Docker](../docker/README.md) |
| services | optional | Use docker services, covered in [Use Docker](../docker/README.md) |
| stages | optional | Define build stages |
| types | optional | Alias for `stages` |
| before_script | optional | Define commands prepended for each job's script |
| variables | optional | Define build variables |
| cache | optional | Define list of files that should be cached between subsequent runs |
| image | no | Use docker image, covered in [Use Docker](../docker/README.md) |
| services | no | Use docker services, covered in [Use Docker](../docker/README.md) |
| stages | no | Define build stages |
| types | no | Alias for `stages` |
| before_script | no | Define commands that run before each job's script |
| variables | no | Define build variables |
| cache | no | Define list of files that should be cached between subsequent runs |
### image and services
This allows to specify a custom Docker image and a list of services that can be used for time of the build.
The configuration of this feature is covered in separate document: [Use Docker](../docker/README.md).
This allows to specify a custom Docker image and a list of services that can be
used for time of the build. The configuration of this feature is covered in
separate document: [Use Docker](../docker/README.md).
### before_script
`before_script` is used to define the command that should be run before all builds, including deploy builds. This can be an array or a multiline string.
`before_script` is used to define the command that should be run before all
builds, including deploy builds. This can be an array or a multi-line string.
### stages
`stages` is used to define build stages that can be used by jobs.
The specification of `stages` allows for having flexible multi stage pipelines.
......@@ -75,7 +89,8 @@ The ordering of elements in `stages` defines the ordering of builds' execution:
1. Builds of next stage are run after success.
Let's consider the following example, which defines 3 stages:
```
```yaml
stages:
- build
- test
......@@ -86,21 +101,26 @@ stages:
1. If all jobs of `build` succeeds, the `test` jobs are executed in parallel.
1. If all jobs of `test` succeeds, the `deploy` jobs are executed in parallel.
1. If all jobs of `deploy` succeeds, the commit is marked as `success`.
1. If any of the previous jobs fails, the commit is marked as `failed` and no jobs of further stage are executed.
1. If any of the previous jobs fails, the commit is marked as `failed` and no
jobs of further stage are executed.
There are also two edge cases worth mentioning:
1. If no `stages` is defined in `.gitlab-ci.yml`, then by default the `build`, `test` and `deploy` are allowed to be used as job's stage by default.
1. If no `stages` is defined in `.gitlab-ci.yml`, then by default the `build`,
`test` and `deploy` are allowed to be used as job's stage by default.
2. If a job doesn't specify `stage`, the job is assigned the `test` stage.
### types
Alias for [stages](#stages).
### variables
**This feature requires `gitlab-runner` with version equal or greater than 0.5.0.**
GitLab CI allows you to add to `.gitlab-ci.yml` variables that are set in build environment.
The variables are stored in repository and are meant to store non-sensitive project configuration, ie. RAILS_ENV or DATABASE_URL.
_**Note:** Introduced in GitLab Runner v0.5.0._
GitLab CI allows you to add to `.gitlab-ci.yml` variables that are set in build
environment. The variables are stored in the git repository and are meant to
store non-sensitive project configuration, for example:
```yaml
variables:
......@@ -109,18 +129,23 @@ variables:
These variables can be later used in all executed commands and scripts.
The YAML-defined variables are also set to all created service containers, thus allowing to fine tune them.
The YAML-defined variables are also set to all created service containers,
thus allowing to fine tune them.
### cache
`cache` is used to specify list of files and directories which should be cached between builds.
Caches are stored according to the branch/ref and the job name. Caches are not
currently shared between different job names or between branches/refs. This means
caching will benefit you if you push subsequent commits to an existing feature branch.
**The global setting allows to specify default cached files for all jobs.**
`cache` is used to specify a list of files and directories which should be
cached between builds. Caches are stored according to the branch/ref and the
job name. They are not currently shared between different job names or between
branches/refs, which means that caching will benefit you if you push subsequent
commits to an existing feature branch.
If `cache` is defined outside the scope of the jobs, it means it is set
globally and all jobs will use its definition.
To cache all git untracked files and files in `binaries`:
```
```yaml
cache:
untracked: true
paths:
......@@ -128,9 +153,10 @@ cache:
```
## Jobs
`.gitlab-ci.yml` allows you to specify an unlimited number of jobs.
Each job has to have a unique `job_name`, which is not one of the keywords mentioned above.
A job is defined by a list of parameters that define the build behaviour.
`.gitlab-ci.yml` allows you to specify an unlimited number of jobs. Each job
must have a unique name, which is not one of the Keywords mentioned above.
A job is defined by a list of parameters that define the build behavior.
```yaml
job_name:
......@@ -148,21 +174,22 @@ job_name:
allow_failure: true
```
| keyword | required | description |
| Keyword | Required | Description |
|---------------|----------|-------------|
| script | required | Defines a shell script which is executed by runner |
| stage | optional (default: test) | Defines a build stage |
| type | optional | Alias for `stage` |
| only | optional | Defines a list of git refs for which build is created |
| except | optional | Defines a list of git refs for which build is not created |
| tags | optional | Defines a list of tags which are used to select runner |
| allow_failure | optional | Allow build to fail. Failed build doesn't contribute to commit status |
| when | optional | Define when to run build. Can be `on_success`, `on_failure` or `always` |
| artifacts | optional | Define list build artifacts |
| cache | optional | Define list of files that should be cached between subsequent runs |
| script | yes | Defines a shell script which is executed by runner |
| stage | no (default: `test`) | Defines a build stage |
| type | no | Alias for `stage` |
| only | no | Defines a list of git refs for which build is created |
| except | no | Defines a list of git refs for which build is not created |
| tags | no | Defines a list of tags which are used to select runner |
| allow_failure | no | Allow build to fail. Failed build doesn't contribute to commit status |
| when | no | Define when to run build. Can be `on_success`, `on_failure` or `always` |
| artifacts | no | Define list build artifacts |
| cache | no | Define list of files that should be cached between subsequent runs |
### script
`script` is a shell script which is executed by runner. The shell script is prepended with `before_script`.
`script` is a shell script which is executed by the runner. For example:
```yaml
job:
......@@ -170,6 +197,7 @@ job:
```
This parameter can also contain several commands using an array:
```yaml
job:
script:
......@@ -178,31 +206,45 @@ job:
```
### stage
`stage` allows to group build into different stages. Builds of the same `stage` are executed in `parallel`.
For more info about the use of `stage` please check the [stages](#stages).
`stage` allows to group build into different stages. Builds of the same `stage`
are executed in `parallel`. For more info about the use of `stage` please check
[stages](#stages).
### only and except
This are two parameters that allow for setting a refs policy to limit when jobs are built:
1. `only` defines the names of branches and tags for which job will be built.
2. `except` defines the names of branches and tags for which the job wil **not** be built.
There are a few rules that apply to usage of refs policy:
`only` and `except` are two parameters that set a refs policy to limit when
jobs are built:
1. `only` and `except` are inclusive. If both `only` and `except` are defined in job specification the ref is filtered by `only` and `except`.
1. `only` and `except` allow for using the regexp expressions.
1. `only` and `except` allow for using special keywords: `branches` and `tags`.
These names can be used for example to exclude all tags and all branches.
1. `only` defines the names of branches and tags for which the job will be
built.
2. `except` defines the names of branches and tags for which the job will
**not** be built.
There are a few rules that apply to the usage of refs policy:
* `only` and `except` are inclusive. If both `only` and `except` are defined
in a job specification, the ref is filtered by `only` and `except`.
* `only` and `except` allow the use of regular expressions.
* `only` and `except` allow the use of special keywords: `branches` and `tags`.
* `only` and `except` allow to specify a repository path to filter jobs for
forks.
In the example below, `job` will run only for refs that start with `issue-`,
whereas all branches will be skipped.
```yaml
job:
# use regexp
only:
- /^issue-.*$/ # use regexp
- /^issue-.*$/
# use special keyword
except:
- branches # use special keyword
- branches
```
1. `only` and `except` allow for specify repository path to filter jobs for forks.
The repository path can be used to have jobs executed only for parent repository.
The repository path can be used to have jobs executed only for the parent
repository and not forks:
```yaml
job:
......@@ -211,33 +253,47 @@ job:
except:
- master@gitlab-org/gitlab-ce
```
The above will run `job` for all branches on `gitlab-org/gitlab-ce`, except master .
The above example will run `job` for all branches on `gitlab-org/gitlab-ce`,
except master.
### tags
`tags` is used to select specific runners from the list of all runners that are allowed to run this project.
During registration of a runner, you can specify the runner's tags, ie.: `ruby`, `postgres`, `development`.
`tags` allow you to run builds with runners that have the specified tags assigned:
`tags` is used to select specific runners from the list of all runners that are
allowed to run this project.
```
During the registration of a runner, you can specify the runner's tags, for
example `ruby`, `postgres`, `development`.
`tags` allow you to run builds with runners that have the specified tags
assigned to them:
```yaml
job:
tags:
- ruby
- postgres
```
The above specification will make sure that `job` is built by a runner that have `ruby` AND `postgres` tags defined.
The specification above, will make sure that `job` is built by a runner that
has both `ruby` AND `postgres` tags defined.
### when
`when` is used to implement jobs that are run in case of failure or despite the failure.
`when` is used to implement jobs that are run in case of failure or despite the
failure.
`when` can be set to one of the following values:
1. `on_success` - execute build only when all builds from prior stages succeeded. This is the default.
1. `on_failure` - execute build only when at least one build from prior stages failed.
1. `on_success` - execute build only when all builds from prior stages
succeeded. This is the default.
1. `on_failure` - execute build only when at least one build from prior stages
failed.
1. `always` - execute build despite the status of builds from prior stages.
```
For example:
```yaml
stages:
- build
- cleanup_build
......@@ -245,28 +301,28 @@ stages:
- deploy
- cleanup
build:
build_job:
stage: build
script:
- make build
cleanup_build:
cleanup_build_job:
stage: cleanup_build
script:
- cleanup build when failed
when: on_failure
test:
test_job:
stage: test
script:
- make test
deploy:
deploy_job:
stage: deploy
script:
- make deploy
cleanup:
cleanup_job:
stage: cleanup
script:
- cleanup after builds
......@@ -274,84 +330,107 @@ cleanup:
```
The above script will:
1. Execute `cleanup_build` only when the `build` failed,
2. Always execute `cleanup` as the last step in pipeline.
1. Execute `cleanup_build_job` only when `build_job` fails
2. Always execute `cleanup_job` as the last step in pipeline.
### artifacts
`artifacts` is used to specify list of files and directories which should be attached to build after success.
1. Send all files in `binaries` and `.config`:
_**Note:** Introduced in GitLab Runner v0.7.0._
artifacts:
paths:
- binaries/
- .config
`artifacts` is used to specify list of files and directories which should be
attached to build after success. Below are some examples.
2. Send all git untracked files:
Send all files in `binaries` and `.config`:
artifacts:
untracked: true
```yaml
artifacts:
paths:
- binaries/
- .config
```
3. Send all git untracked files and files in `binaries`:
Send all git untracked files:
artifacts:
untracked: true
paths:
- binaries/
```yaml
artifacts:
untracked: true
```
Send all git untracked files and files in `binaries`:
The artifacts will be send after the build success to GitLab and will be accessible in GitLab interface to download.
```yaml
artifacts:
untracked: true
paths:
- binaries/
```
This feature requires GitLab Runner v0.7.0 or higher.
The artifacts will be send after a successful build success to GitLab, and will
be accessible in the GitLab UI to download.
### cache
`cache` is used to specify list of files and directories which should be cached between builds.
1. Cache all files in `binaries` and `.config`:
_**Note:** Introduced in GitLab Runner v0.7.0._
rspec:
script: test
cache:
paths:
- binaries/
- .config
`cache` is used to specify list of files and directories which should be cached
between builds. Below are some examples:
2. Cache all git untracked files:
Cache all files in `binaries` and `.config`:
rspec:
script: test
cache:
untracked: true
3. Cache all git untracked files and files in `binaries`:
```yaml
rspec:
script: test
cache:
paths:
- binaries/
- .config
```
rspec:
script: test
cache:
untracked: true
paths:
- binaries/
Cache all git untracked files:
4. Locally defined cache overwrites globally defined options. This will cache only `binaries/`:
```yaml
rspec:
script: test
cache:
untracked: true
```
Cache all git untracked files and files in `binaries`:
```yaml
rspec:
script: test
cache:
untracked: true
paths:
- binaries/
```
cache:
paths:
- my/files
rspec:
script: test
cache:
paths:
- binaries/
Locally defined cache overwrites globally defined options. This will cache only
`binaries/`:
The cache is provided on best effort basis, so don't expect that cache will be present.
For implementation details please check GitLab Runner.
```yaml
cache:
paths:
- my/files
This feature requires GitLab Runner v0.7.0 or higher.
rspec:
script: test
cache:
paths:
- binaries/
```
The cache is provided on best effort basis, so don't expect that cache will be
always present. For implementation details please check GitLab Runner.
## Validate the .gitlab-ci.yml
Each instance of GitLab CI has an embedded debug tool called Lint.
You can find the link to the Lint in the project's settings page or use short url `/lint`.
You can find the link under `/ci/lint` of your gitlab instance.
## Skipping builds
There is one more way to skip all builds, if your commit message contains tag [ci skip]. In this case, commit will be created but builds will be skipped
If your commit message contains `[ci skip]`, the commit will be created but the
builds will be skipped.
Markdown is supported
0% or
You are about to add 0 people to the discussion. Proceed with caution.
Finish editing this message first!
Please register or to comment