Commit 8bc86614 authored by Evan Read's avatar Evan Read

Merge branch 'docs/refactor-backup' into 'master'

Refactor the backup/restore docs

See merge request gitlab-org/gitlab-ce!22576
parents 72319748 4f1e6631
......@@ -9,37 +9,39 @@ You can only restore a backup to **exactly the same version and type (CE/EE)**
of GitLab on which it was created. The best way to migrate your repositories
from one server to another is through backup restore.
## Backup
## Requirements
GitLab provides a simple command line interface to backup your whole installation,
and is flexible enough to fit your needs.
In order to be able to backup and restore, you need two essential tools
installed on your system.
### Requirements
### Rsync
* rsync
If you installed GitLab:
If you're using GitLab with the Omnibus package, you're all set. If you
installed GitLab from source, make sure you have rsync installed.
- Using the Omnibus package, you're all set.
- From source, make sure `rsync` is installed:
If you're using Ubuntu, you could run:
```sh
# Debian/Ubuntu
sudo apt-get install rsync
```
sudo apt-get install -y rsync
```
# RHEL/CentOS
sudo yum install rsync
```
* tar
### Tar
Backup and restore tasks use `tar` under the hood to create and extract
archives. Ensure you have version 1.30 or above of `tar` available in your
system. To check the version, run:
```
```sh
tar --version
```
### Backup timestamp
## Backup timestamp
>**Note:**
NOTE: **Note:**
In GitLab 9.2 the timestamp format was changed from `EPOCH_YYYY_MM_DD` to
`EPOCH_YYYY_MM_DD_GitLab_version`, for example `1493107454_2018_04_25`
would become `1493107454_2018_04_25_10.6.4-ce`.
......@@ -54,30 +56,46 @@ available.
For example, if the backup name is `1493107454_2018_04_25_10.6.4-ce_gitlab_backup.tar`,
then the timestamp is `1493107454_2018_04_25_10.6.4-ce`.
### Creating a backup of the GitLab system
## Creating a backup of the GitLab system
GitLab provides a simple command line interface to backup your whole instance.
It backs up your:
- Database
- Attachments
- Git repositories data
- CI/CD job output logs
- CI/CD job artifacts
- LFS objects
- Container Registry images
- GitLab Pages content
CAUTION: **Warning:**
GitLab does not back up any configuration files, SSL certificates, or system files.
You are highly advised to [read about storing configuration files](#storing-configuration-files).
Use this command if you've installed GitLab with the Omnibus package:
```
```sh
sudo gitlab-rake gitlab:backup:create
```
Use this if you've installed GitLab from source:
```
```sh
sudo -u git -H bundle exec rake gitlab:backup:create RAILS_ENV=production
```
If you are running GitLab within a Docker container, you can run the backup from the host:
```
```sh
docker exec -t <container name> gitlab-rake gitlab:backup:create
```
If you are using the gitlab-omnibus helm chart on a Kubernetes cluster, you can
run the backup task on the gitlab application pod using kubectl
run the backup task on the gitlab application pod using kubectl:
```
```sh
kubectl exec -it <gitlab-gitlab pod> gitlab-rake gitlab:backup:create
```
......@@ -110,9 +128,50 @@ Deleting tmp directories...[DONE]
Deleting old backups... [SKIPPING]
```
## Storing configuration files
A backup performed by the [raketask GitLab provides](#creating-a-backup-of-the-gitlab-system)
does **not** store your configuration files. The primary reason for this is that your
database contains encrypted information for two-factor authentication, the CI/CD
'secure variables', etc. Storing encrypted information along with its key in the
same place defeats the purpose of using encryption in the first place.
CAUTION: **Warning:**
The secrets file is essential to preserve your database encryption key.
At the very **minimum**, you must backup:
For Omnibus:
- `/etc/gitlab/gitlab-secrets.json`
- `/etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb`
For installation from source:
- `/home/git/gitlab/config/secrets.yml`
- `/home/git/gitlab/config/gitlab.yml`
For [Docker installations](https://docs.gitlab.com/omnibus/docker/), you must
back up the volume where the configuration files are stored. If you have created
the GitLab container according to the documentation, it should be under
`/srv/gitlab/config`.
You may also want to back up any TLS keys and certificates, and your
[SSH host keys](https://superuser.com/questions/532040/copy-ssh-keys-from-one-server-to-another-server/532079#532079).
If you use Omnibus GitLab, see some additional information
[to backup your configuration](https://docs.gitlab.com/omnibus/settings/backups.html).
In the unlikely event that the secrets file is lost, see the
[troubleshooting section](#when-the-secrets-file-is-lost).
## Backup options
The command line tool GitLab provides to backup your instance can take more options.
### Backup strategy option
> **Note:** Introduced as an option in GitLab 8.17.
> [Introduced](https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-ce/merge_requests/8728) in GitLab 8.17.
The default backup strategy is to essentially stream data from the respective
data locations to the backup using the Linux command `tar` and `gzip`. This works
......@@ -129,8 +188,11 @@ so the problem doesn't compound, but it could be a considerable change for large
installations. This is why the `copy` strategy is not the default in 8.17.
To use the `copy` strategy instead of the default streaming strategy, specify
`STRATEGY=copy` in the Rake task command. For example,
`sudo gitlab-rake gitlab:backup:create STRATEGY=copy`.
`STRATEGY=copy` in the Rake task command. For example:
```sh
sudo gitlab-rake gitlab:backup:create STRATEGY=copy
```
### Excluding specific directories from the backup
......@@ -151,11 +213,15 @@ Use a comma to specify several options at the same time:
All wikis will be backed up as part of the `repositories` group. Non-existent wikis
will be skipped during a backup.
```
# use this command if you've installed GitLab with the Omnibus package
For Omnibus GitLab packages:
```sh
sudo gitlab-rake gitlab:backup:create SKIP=db,uploads
```
For installations from source:
# if you've installed GitLab from source
```sh
sudo -u git -H bundle exec rake gitlab:backup:create SKIP=db,uploads RAILS_ENV=production
```
......@@ -208,7 +274,7 @@ This example can be used for a bucket in Amsterdam (AMS3).
1. [Reconfigure GitLab] for the changes to take effect
CAUTION: **Warning:**
NOTE: **Note:**
If you see `400 Bad Request` by using Digital Ocean Spaces, the cause may be the
usage of backup encryption. Remove or comment the line that
contains `gitlab_rails['backup_encryption']` since Digital Ocean Spaces
......@@ -370,33 +436,43 @@ backups will be copied to, and will be created if it does not exist. If the
directory that you want to copy the tarballs to is the root of your mounted
directory, just use `.` instead.
For omnibus packages:
```ruby
gitlab_rails['backup_upload_connection'] = {
:provider => 'Local',
:local_root => '/mnt/backups'
}
For Omnibus GitLab packages:
# The directory inside the mounted folder to copy backups to
# Use '.' to store them in the root directory
gitlab_rails['backup_upload_remote_directory'] = 'gitlab_backups'
```
1. Edit `/etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb`:
```ruby
gitlab_rails['backup_upload_connection'] = {
:provider => 'Local',
:local_root => '/mnt/backups'
}
# The directory inside the mounted folder to copy backups to
# Use '.' to store them in the root directory
gitlab_rails['backup_upload_remote_directory'] = 'gitlab_backups'
```
1. [Reconfigure GitLab] for the changes to take effect.
---
For installations from source:
```yaml
backup:
# snip
upload:
# Fog storage connection settings, see http://fog.io/storage/ .
connection:
provider: Local
local_root: '/mnt/backups'
# The directory inside the mounted folder to copy backups to
# Use '.' to store them in the root directory
remote_directory: 'gitlab_backups'
```
1. Edit `home/git/gitlab/config/gitlab.yml`:
```yaml
backup:
upload:
# Fog storage connection settings, see http://fog.io/storage/ .
connection:
provider: Local
local_root: '/mnt/backups'
# The directory inside the mounted folder to copy backups to
# Use '.' to store them in the root directory
remote_directory: 'gitlab_backups'
```
1. [Restart GitLab] for the changes to take effect.
### Backup archive permissions
......@@ -405,45 +481,56 @@ will have owner/group git:git and 0600 permissions by default.
This is meant to avoid other system users reading GitLab's data.
If you need the backup archives to have different permissions you can use the 'archive_permissions' setting.
```
# In /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb, for omnibus packages
gitlab_rails['backup_archive_permissions'] = 0644 # Makes the backup archives world-readable
```
For Omnibus GitLab packages:
```
# In gitlab.yml, for installations from source:
backup:
archive_permissions: 0644 # Makes the backup archives world-readable
```
1. Edit `/etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb`:
### Storing configuration files
```ruby
gitlab_rails['backup_archive_permissions'] = 0644 # Makes the backup archives world-readable
```
1. [Reconfigure GitLab] for the changes to take effect.
---
For installations from source:
Please be informed that a backup does not store your configuration
files. One reason for this is that your database contains encrypted
information for two-factor authentication. Storing encrypted
information along with its key in the same place defeats the purpose
of using encryption in the first place!
1. Edit `/home/git/gitlab/config/gitlab.yml`:
If you use an Omnibus package please see the [instructions in the readme to backup your configuration](https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/omnibus-gitlab/blob/master/README.md#backup-and-restore-omnibus-gitlab-configuration).
If you have a cookbook installation there should be a copy of your configuration in Chef.
If you installed from source, please consider backing up your `config/secrets.yml` file, `gitlab.yml` file, any SSL keys and certificates, and your [SSH host keys](https://superuser.com/questions/532040/copy-ssh-keys-from-one-server-to-another-server/532079#532079).
```yaml
backup:
archive_permissions: 0644 # Makes the backup archives world-readable
```
At the very **minimum** you should backup `/etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb` and
`/etc/gitlab/gitlab-secrets.json` (Omnibus), or
`/home/git/gitlab/config/secrets.yml` (source) to preserve your database
encryption key.
1. [Restart GitLab] for the changes to take effect.
### Configuring cron to make daily backups
>**Note:**
NOTE: **Note:**
The following cron jobs do not [backup your GitLab configuration files](#storing-configuration-files)
or [SSH host keys](https://superuser.com/questions/532040/copy-ssh-keys-from-one-server-to-another-server/532079#532079).
**For Omnibus installations**
For Omnibus GitLab packages:
1. Edit `/etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb`:
```ruby
## Limit backup lifetime to 7 days - 604800 seconds
gitlab_rails['backup_keep_time'] = 604800
```
1. [Reconfigure GitLab] for the changes to take effect.
Note that the `backup_keep_time` configuration option only manages local
files. GitLab does not automatically prune old files stored in a third-party
object storage (e.g., AWS S3) because the user may not have permission to list
and delete files. We recommend that you configure the appropriate retention
policy for your object storage. For example, you can configure [the S3 backup
policy as described here](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/37553070/gitlab-omnibus-delete-backup-from-amazon-s3).
To schedule a cron job that backs up your repositories and GitLab metadata, use the root user:
```
```sh
sudo su -
crontab -e
```
......@@ -455,26 +542,24 @@ There, add the following line to schedule the backup for everyday at 2 AM:
```
You may also want to set a limited lifetime for backups to prevent regular
backups using all your disk space. To do this add the following lines to
`/etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb` and reconfigure:
backups using all your disk space.
```
# limit backup lifetime to 7 days - 604800 seconds
gitlab_rails['backup_keep_time'] = 604800
```
---
Note that the `backup_keep_time` configuration option only manages local
files. GitLab does not automatically prune old files stored in a third-party
object storage (e.g., AWS S3) because the user may not have permission to list
and delete files. We recommend that you configure the appropriate retention
policy for your object storage. For example, you can configure [the S3 backup
policy as described here](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/37553070/gitlab-omnibus-delete-backup-from-amazon-s3).
For installations from source:
1. Edit `home/git/gitlab/config/gitlab.yml`:
**For installation from source**
```yaml
backup:
## Limit backup lifetime to 7 days - 604800 seconds
keep_time: 604800
```
```
cd /home/git/gitlab
sudo -u git -H editor config/gitlab.yml # Enable keep_time in the backup section to automatically delete old backups
1. [Restart GitLab] for the changes to take effect.
```sh
sudo -u git crontab -e # Edit the crontab for the git user
```
......@@ -711,5 +796,53 @@ Those objects have no influence on the database backup/restore but they give thi
For more information see similar questions on postgresql issue tracker[here](http://www.postgresql.org/message-id/201110220712.30886.adrian.klaver@gmail.com) and [here](http://www.postgresql.org/message-id/2039.1177339749@sss.pgh.pa.us) as well as [stack overflow](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4368789/error-must-be-owner-of-language-plpgsql).
### When the secrets file is lost
If you have failed to [back up the secrets file](#storing-configuration-files),
then users with 2FA enabled will not be able to log into GitLab. In that case,
you need to [disable 2FA for everyone](../security/two_factor_authentication.md#disabling-2fa-for-everyone).
In the case of CI/CD, if your project has secure variables set, you might experience
some weird behavior, like stuck jobs or 500 errors. In that case, you can try
deleting the `ci_variables` table from the database.
CAUTION: **Warning:**
Use the following commands at your own risk, and make sure you've taken a
backup beforehand.
1. Enter the Rails console:
For Omnibus GitLab packages:
```sh
sudo gitlab-rails dbconsole
```
For installations from source:
```sh
sudo -u git -H bundle exec rails dbconsole RAILS_ENV=production
```
1. Check the `ci_variables` table:
```sql
SELECT * FROM public."ci_variables";
```
Those are the variables that you need to delete.
1. Drop the table:
```sql
DELETE FROM ci_variables;
```
1. You may need to reconfigure or restart GitLab for the changes to take
effect.
You should now be able to visit your project, and the jobs will start
running again.
[reconfigure GitLab]: ../administration/restart_gitlab.md#omnibus-gitlab-reconfigure
[restart GitLab]: ../administration/restart_gitlab.md#installations-from-source
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